Saturday, 1 June 2013

Audience (Revision): Key Concept MS4

Encoding and Decoding

Stuart Hall did influential research into how texts position audiences to respond in certain ways.

He called the production of texts encoding and the meaning audiences take from texts as decoding.

—In the encoding process meaning is created by the texts’ producers and texts carry values and meanings related to the social and cultural background of the producer of the text.

The audience then decodes the text but may not respond to it as the producer intended

1) Preferred /Dominant Reading – This is when the audience decodes a text as the producer intended.

2) Negotiated Reading- This is when the audience agrees with some elements and disagrees with others.

3) Oppositional Reading – This is when the person decoding the text does not agree with the values and messages encoded in the text.

The Effects Model

An earlier way of explaining how audiences respond to texts is called the Effects Model or the Hypodermic Needle Effect. This theory sees the audience as passive and the media can inject ideas and opinions into them.

The Uses and Gratifications Model

1. Entertainment and diversion – a form of escape from everyday life

2. Personal relationships (the water cooler moment) – Pleasure in discussing media texts with others.

3. Personal identity – pleasure in comparing your life to characters in media texts

4. Information / education – To learn about what is going on in the world.

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